Disparities in sentencing causes and solutions : reports presented to the eight Criminological Colloquium (1987)

Cover of: Disparities in sentencing |

Published by Council of Europe in Strasbourg .

Written in English

Read online


  • Europe.


  • Sentences (Criminal procedure) -- Europe.

Edition Notes

Book details

SeriesCollected studies in criminological research ;, v. 26
LC ClassificationsHV6024.5 .C633 vol. 26, KJC8304 .C633 vol. 26
The Physical Object
Pagination156 p. ;
Number of Pages156
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL1805405M
ISBN 109287116202
LC Control Number89211935

Download Disparities in sentencing

A valuable contribution to the literature on racial disparities in capital punishment. Flexon's interdisciplinary Disparities in sentencing book is a clever and unique method to examine how racial biases may appear in the courtroom and may impact racial disparities in capital sentencing decisions.

--Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Book Review. Racial Disparities in Capital Sentencing: Prejudice and Discrimination in the Jury is a book centered around a study conducted by Jamie Flexon, which takes an interdisciplinary approach to examine the ways in which racial biases may impact racial disparities in capital sentencing decisions.

Disparity, Discrimination, and Adverse Impacts Fair sentencing is individualized sentencing. Unwarranted disparity is defined as different treatment of individualoffenders who are similar in relevant ways, or similar treatment of individual offenders who differ in characteristics that.

Sentencing disparity among similar offenders has increased at a disconcerting rate over the last decade. Some judges issue sentences twice as harsh as other judges on the same court, so a defendant’s sentence often depends substantially on which judge is randomly assigned to the defendant’s case.

The old mandatory sentencing. sexual offending females who have sexually offended sentencing comments gender disparities sentencing outcomes Acknowledgements This research was funded by a grant from the James Hume Bequest Fund, administered by the University of Otago Medical School and by a Marsden Grant (UOO) from the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Disparity in criminal sentencing has always been a thorn in the side of our judicial system since time immemorial. Of course, there have been many attempts to alleviate the problem, such as mandatory minimums, sentencing guidelines, and complicated sentencing formulas.

Congress established the U.S. Sentencing Commission in with the Disparities in sentencing book Reform Act, partly in response to concerns that sentencing was marred by racial and geographic disparities.

The. perpetuating racial discrimination during sentencing. This explains why black males, on average, receive sentences 20% longer than their white counterparts who commit the same crime. After examining federal sentencing data, the authors state that some disparities involved valid variables like criminal history, the type and/or severity of a crime.

In fact, the DSO notes that the racial disparity that the U.S. Sentencing Commission has associated with increased judicial discretion actually has more to do with prosecutorial discretion.

In that vein, it must be recognized that most federal cases are resolved by plea bargain, not trial. Summary (Published Novem ) For this report and in its prior two reports (see below), the Commission used multivariate regression analyses to explore the relationships between demographic factors, such as race and gender, and sentencing outcomes.

These analyses were aimed at determining whether there were demographic differences in sentencing outcomes that were. Yet the majority of prior research compares sentencing decisions at a single point in time and does not give explicit attention to whether and how racial and ethnic disparities have changed.

Decades of sentencing data from Minnesota, the federal courts, and a sample of large urban counties are used to assess the degree of change in racial and.

Racial sentencing disparities is a term that refers to the inequitable treatment of people of different races. In The New Jim Crow, Michelle Alexander discusses race and sentencing disparities.

Read on to understand racial sentencing disparities as discussed in The New Jim Crow. Courts Maintain Racial Sentencing Disparities. Synopsis Flexon presents an interdisciplinary perspective to the problem of racial disparities in capital case outcomes.

In doing so, research from social and cognitive psychology concerning stereotypes and attitude influence were bridged with other empirical findings concerning racial disparities in capital sentencing.

Mustard’s paper addresses racial, ethnic and gender disparities in sentencing in the federal courts under the Sentencing Reform Act of Ironically, the act was designed to eliminate.

Handbook on Punishment Decisions: Locations of Disparity provides a comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on sites of disparity in punishment decision-making.

Racial Disparities in Capital Sentencing: Prejudice and Discrimination in the Jury Room By Jamie L. Flexon LFB Scholarly, Read preview Overview Boys among Men: Trying and Sentencing Juveniles as Adults By David L. Myers Praeger, Sentencing disparities examined in Massachusetts and Washtenaw County, Michigan, federal prosecutors targeted black communities while handling DC gun charges, Berkley to disarms traffic.

The history of racial disparity in the criminal justice system in the United States has been longstanding due to the racial dynamics in sentencing. Sentencing disparity takes place when similar cases are not disposed of similarly. Judges and magistrates are to be given explicit reminders for the first time in sentencing guidelines of the disparity in punishments being imposed.

Capital murder is the most serious criminal offense, and capital sentencing entails the most consequential punishment decisions in society. This review will focus on contemporary empirical research on disparity in death penalty case processing and sentencing decisions, focusing on the race/ethnicity of defendants and victims, gender, defense representation, and differences between local courts.

titled Demographic Differences In Sentencing (Nov. The new publication examines the relationship between demographic factors, such as race and gender, on sentencing outcomes for the time period October 1, to Septem In doing so, the Commission updates its Report to Congress: Continuing Impact of United States v.

Sentencing Scorecards. Reducing Racial Disparities in Prison Sentences at Their Source. Published in: Criminology & Public Policy ().

doi: / Posted on on Octo by Greg Ridgeway, Ruth A. Moyer, Shawn David Bushway. Related Topics: Criminal Law, New York, Racial Equity, Sentencing.

precise measures of key variables, or examined sentencing outcomes relating to length of incarcerative sentence. Additionally, there was some evidence to suggest that structured sentencing mechanisms, such as sentencing guidelines, were associated with smaller unwarranted sentencing disparities.

The limited available research contrasting sentencing. studies of sentencing disparities, and we conclude that the estimation of racial disparities, even under a determinant sentencing framework like the Guidelines, is more complicated than previous work indicates.

4 See Sentencing Reform Act, Pub. 98 Stat. Sentencing Policies and Practices in the 21 st Century focuses on the evolution and consequences of sentencing policies and practices, with sentencing broadly defined to include plea bargaining, judicial and juror decision making, and alternatives to incarceration, including participation in problem-solving courts.

This collection of essays and reports of original research explores how. DISPARITIES IN SENTENCING 1 I. Title The War on Drugs- Disparities in Sentencing II.

Introduction In the criminal justice system, the idea of the war on drugs is considered in responsible ways for many upcoming issues and especially in disparities in sentencing (Brandon, A. M., & O'Connell, ).

At the time, more than 50 percent of sentenced prisoners were serving in jail due to the. The racial disparities in sentencing appear to have increased over the last two decades, worsening specifically after According to older USSC reports, the gap between black and white men in sentencing was about 11 percent for to and 5 percent for to But it jumped to 15 percent for to and to nearly 20 percent.

As Judge Marvin Frankel charged in his influential book Criminal Sentences: Law Without Order, unstructured discretion leads to ‘‘lawlessness’’ in sentencing.

Allegations of ‘‘lawlessness’’ in sentencing reflect concerns about discrimination as well as disparity. Harvard Law study finds stark racial disparities in criminal court sentencing in Massachusetts The disproportionately long sentences handed down to Black and Latino people could not be explained by.

A significant body of literature has examined racial and ethnic inequalities in sentencing, focusing on how individual court actors make decisions, but fewer scholars have examined whether disparities are institutionalized through legal case factors. Sentencing disparity is defined as "a form of unequal treatment [in criminal punishment] that is often of unexplained cause and is at least incongruous, unfair and disadvantaging in consequence".

Terminology. Colloquially, situations wherein some criminals receive lighter. The term racial disparity refers to a difference that may or may not be related to discrimination.

Criminal justice experts distinguish between legal and extralegal factors to explain racial disparities in criminal justice. Sentencing Statutes and Guidelines Removing #book# from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages.

Sentencing disparity refers to the ways in which people who committed similar crimes may receive quite different sentences. The underlying cause of this is that judges have considerable leeway in.

Using quantile regressions, we estimate the size of racial disparity across the conditional sentencing distribution. We find that the majority of the disparity between black and white sentences can be explained by differences in legally permitted characteristics, in particular, the arrest offense and the defendant’s criminal history.

Using rich data linking federal cases from arrest through to sentencing, we find that initial case and defendant characteristics, including arrest offense and criminal history, can explain most of the large raw racial disparity in federal sentences, but significant gaps remain.

The sentencing disparities began in the s and were based on a lot of misinformation about crack cocaine and got wrapped up with the war on drugs, Lithwick says. The black/white sentencing disparities have been increasing in recent years, the report found, particularly following the Supreme Court's decision in United States v.

Booker in   Congress passed the Sentencing Reform Act inspurred by evidence of sentencing disparities. The law established the federal sentencing commission, which wrote mandatory guidelines for judges.

5 hours ago  The racial disparities in Iowa’s prisons are more extreme than almost anywhere else in the country, with Black Iowans imprisoned at a rate 11 times that of white Iowans. As part of our series of. Studies the capital sentencing patterns in Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Oklahoma, Mississippi, North Carolina, Virginia and Arkansas for the years through Suggests that, in the aftermath of Furman v.

Georgia, various state efforts to improve the evenhandedness of the capital punishment system still need improvements and just alternatives. A Disparity In Sentencing Thus The Times study found that the severity of sentencing in the state courts here had de creased markedly in recent years, to the extent that a four‐ year term for.

The analysis did not identify reasons for the disparities in sentencing outcomes. The council is proposing to update five drug offences guidelines that came into force in. While the Fair Sentencing Act ofenacted under the Obama-Biden administration, reduced the crack/powder cocaine disparity from to .

77806 views Friday, November 27, 2020